Leading EU Models

Vehicle simulation models

PHEM is a vehicle simulation tool capable of simulating vehicle hot and cold emissions for different driving cycles, gear shift strategies, vehicle loadings, road gradients, vehicle characteristics (mass, size, air resistance, etc.). PHEM has been validated by emission measurements both from light and heavy duty vehicles in the laboratories (chassis and engine test bed) and on the road (with PEMS) and under different test conditions. If fed with a detailed list of vehicle specifications PHEM is capable of modelling emission levels on a large variety of conditions not covered by the available measurements. Average emission factor for each vehicle category and then produced taking into consideration the fleet population and technology offer on the market.

More information can be found here and at http://www.ivt.tugraz.at/de/forschung/emissionen.html

VERSIT+ is constituted by a suite of models is used to predict emission factors and energy use factors that are representative for vehicle fleets in different countries. Emission factors are differentiated for various vehicle types and traffic situations, and take into account real-world driving conditions.

More information can be found at http://www.tno.nl/downloads/lowres_TNO_VERSIT.pdf

Emission inventory models (Leading EU Models)

COPERT 4 is a software tool used world-wide to calculate air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transport. COPERT emission factors are derived from a binomial regression analysis applied to a large dataset of vehicle measurements classified by vehicle type, they are classified per vehicle type, and technology and expressed as a function of the average speed of the vehicle.

The COPERT 4 methodology is part of the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook for the calculation of air pollutant emissions and is consistent with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for the calculation of greenhouse gas emissions. The use of a software tool to calculate road transport emissions allows for a transparent and standardized, hence consistent and comparable data collecting and emissions reporting procedure, in accordance with the requirements of international conventions and protocols and EU legislation.

The development of COPERT is coordinated by the European Environment Agency (EEA), in the framework of the activities of the European Topic Centre for Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre manages the scientific development of the model. COPERT has been developed for official road transport emission inventory preparation in EEA member countries. However, it is applicable to all relevant research, scientific and academic applications.

More information can be found at http://www.emisia.com/copert/General.html

HBEFA, the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport, provides emission factors for all current vehicle categories (PC, LDV, HGV, urban buses, coaches and motor cycles), each divided into different categories, for a wide variety of traffic situations. Emission factors for all regulated and the most important non-regulated pollutants as well as fuel consumption and CO2 are included. The emission factors for HBEFA are generated by the model PHEM.

PHEM is a vehicle simulation tool capable of simulating vehicle hot and cold emissions for different driving cycles, gear shift strategies, vehicle loadings, road gradients, vehicle characteristics (mass, size, air resistance, etc.). PHEM has been validated by emission measurements both from light and heavy duty vehicles in the laboratories (chassis and engine test bed) and on the road (with PEMS) and under different test conditions. If fed with a detailed list of vehicle specifications PHEM is capable of modelling emission levels on a large variety of conditions not covered by the available measurements. Average emission factor for each vehicle category and then produced taking into consideration the fleet population and technology offer on the market.

Different levels of disaggregation are being offered in HBEFA by: type of emission (hot, cold start, evaporative), vehicle category (car, van, heavy duty vehicles, buses, coaches and motorcycles), year (1990-2030), pollutants, traffic situations, road gradient. HBEFA is also capable of weighting the emission factors (eg. per vehicle category or per fuel type).

The results can be exported to Excel. Users with a full version of MS Access have direct access to the result database for further processing of the emission factors. An online version is also available for this model.

More information can be found at www.hbefa.net

VERSIT+ is constituted by a suite of models is used to predict emission factors and energy use factors that are representative for vehicle fleets in different countries. Emission factors are differentiated for various vehicle types and traffic situations, and take into account real-world driving conditions. VERSIT+ can be used for investigating national greenhouse gas reduction strategies but also for local air quality improvement in a consistent manner by projecting emissions for road traffic (trucks, buses, passenger cars and motorcycles) into the future.

VERSIT+ is based on a database of 12,000 measured driving cycles, mimicking all aspects of real-time driving behaviour. Using advanced statistical modelling techniques, VERSIT+ finds the best fitting emission factor equation for any given driving pattern.

Traffic simulation models are being incorporated into VERSIT+. More information can be found at www.tno.nl/downloads/lowres_TNO_VERSIT.pdf